The article is devoted to the development of Sufism in the territory of Mavaraunnahr. It analyzes the religious and military-political processes that preceded the Islamization of the region and population, as well as the ways and means that were used by the Arabs to achieve their goals. Chronologically, the article covers the processes of the 7th-11th centuries. The Islamization of the population of Mavaraunnahr, which by this period had its long-standing historical and cultural roots and heritage, was ambiguously difficult in several stages. Sufi orders played a major role in the final Islamization of the region.